Mississippi adopts literacy and “understanding” tests to disfranchise Black voters.
1890 (Aug 12- Nov 1)
A constitutional convention in Mississippi adopted the literacy and "understanding" tests as devices to disfranchise Black voters. A poll tax of two dollars and a provision excluding voters convicted of bribery, burglary, theft, arson, murder, bigamy, and perjury were also included in the amendment. Before the convention, Black delegates from forty counties had met and protested to President Benjamin Harrison their impending disfranchisement. Harrison chose not to interfere. To avoid a fight over ratification, the white proponents of the disfranchising measures declared the amendment to be in effect after passage by the convention.